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Endings

In the Instrumental Case there is only one set of endings. The endings depend on the number and the gender of the noun. In the table below you can see all Instrumental Case endings for nouns.

Endings

number masculine feminine neuter
singular -em -em
plural -ami -ami -ami

As you can see, the masculine and neuter gender have the same endings in the Instrumental Case. Below you can see how to use these endings.

Let's consider these three nouns:

  • dom - a house
  • książka - a book
  • okno - a window

Here are their Nominative Case (the first case) forms:

number masculine feminine neuter
singular dom książka okno
plural domy książki okna

And here are their Instrumental Case forms:

number masculine feminine neuter
singular domem książką oknem
plural domami książkami oknami

Notice how the Instrumental Case forms have been created. When there is a vowel in the Nominative Case, it is removed and then the correct ending is being attached.

How to use the endings

To use an ending you have to put it on the end of the noun. If a noun ends with a vowel, then firstly remove the vowel and then attach the ending.

Example for book - książka

Step Noun
1 książka noun in singular Nominative Case
2 książk- remove the vowel at the end of the noun
3 książką ttach the Instrumental Case ending

Example for books - książki

Step Noun
1 książki noun in plural Nominative Case
2 książk- remove the vowel at the end of the noun
3 książkami attach the Instrumental Case ending

Examples

Examples for singular nouns

Nominative Case Instrumental Case Translation
mur murem wall
komputer komputerem computer
talerz talerzem plate
instrument instrumentem instrument
droga drogą street
pogoda pogodą weather
wiara wiarą faith
autostrada autostradą highway
biuro biurem office
bagno bagnem swamp
drzewo drzewem tree
lustro lustrem mirror

Examples for plural nouns

Nominative Case Instrumental Case Translation
mury murami walls
komputery komputerami computers
talerze talerzami plates
instrumenty instrumentami instruments
drogi drogami streets
wiary wiarami faiths
autostrady autostradami highways
biura biurami offices
bagna bagnami swamps
drzewa drzewami trees
lustra lustrami mirrors

Exceptions

There are many groups of nouns, which follow above's rules with some exceptions.

Instrumental Case - Nouns Exceptions
Masculine Exceptions

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