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What is a Case?

Cases are a grammatical tool to help express the function of a word in a sentence. To use a Case you usually have to change the ending of a word. The example below presents the usage of cases:


To jest znajoma siostry. - This is my sister's friend.

To jest siostra znajomej. - This is my friend's sister.

Pay attention to the words' endings. They change the meaning of the sentences, although the sentences use the same words.

In this section you will learn about the Instrumencal Case.

What is the Instrumental Case

The Instrumental Case (in Polish called Narzędnik) is the 5th case in the Polish language.

This case is mainly used to express the means by which something is done.


Jadę pociągiem - I'm going by train.

Idę z dziewczyną do kina. - I'm going to the cinema with my girlfriend

Mieszam herbatę łyżką - I'm mixing the tea with a spoon

Very often, when there is a with or a by in an English sentence, then we translate it into Polish using the Instrumental Case.

Interrogative words

Each Case has its own interrogative words, which help us to decide which case we should use in a given context.

The interrogative words for Instrumental Case are as follows:

Polish English
(z) kim? (with) who? / (with) whom?
(z) czym? (with / by) what?

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