Skip to content

/ Home / Grammar / Cases / Dative Case (Celownik) / Nouns / Feminine Nouns

Feminine Nouns

Feminine Nouns in Dative Case may have one of two endings: -'e or -y / -i. In order to decide which ending to use, you have to know which consonants are hard and which are soft. When the root of a feminine noun ends with a hard consonant, then you have to use the -'e ending. When the feminine noun ends with a soft consonant, then you have to use the -y / -i ending.

Hard and soft consonants

In the table below you can see all hard consonants and their equivalent soft versions

Hard Soft
p pi
b bi
f fi
w wi
m mi
t ci / ć
d dzi / dź
s si / ś
z zi / ź
n ni / ń
ł l
r rz
k c
g dz
ch sz
st ści / ść
zd ździ / źdź
śl
źl
sn śni / śń
cz
ż
j

Let's examine a couple of feminine nouns and decide which ending we should use

Nominative last root consonant ending to use
szkoła ł -'e
twarz rz -y / -i
mama m -'e
torba b -'e
marża ż -y / -i
demokracja j -y / -i

Now you know which ending to use. The next thing that you will learn is how to apply the ending and create the Dative Case declension of feminine nouns.

Applying -'e ending

To successfully apply the -'e ending you must know the hard/soft consonants table by heart. Why so? Notice, that the ending is -'e, not just -e. The ' means, that the last consonant of the root must be softened. Basically it comes down to replacing the hard consonant from the first column of the table with its corresponsing equivalent. Analyse examples in the table below. They should make everything clear

Nominative Hard consonant Softened consonant Declension Dative
szkoła ł l szko + ł -> l + e szkole
mama m mi ma + m -> mi + e mamie
maska k c mas + k -> c + e masce
chmura r rz chmu + r -> rz + e chmurze

Applying -y / -i ending

When the root of a feminine noun ends with a soft consonant, then you should add -y or -i ending in order to decline the word in Dative Case. There are much less feminine words ending with a soft consonant in Polish language. In the table below you can see when to add -y or -i ending depending on the soft consonant.

soft consonants ending
ż, rz, c -y
j, ni, ń -i

Examples

Nominative Dative
ulica ulicy
twarz twarzy
marża marży
konstytucja konstytucji
demokracja demokracji
gospodyni gospodyni

/ Home / Grammar / Cases / Dative Case (Celownik) / Nouns / Feminine Nouns



Help me improve this article

Please leave a comment below if something is unclear. It will help me improve my website :)

Comments

We use cookies, Google Analytics and HotJar to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you continue to use this site we will assume that you agree on that :) More info