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Adjectives

Adjectives, just like nouns, also have different endings depending on the number and gender. In the table below you can see all the adjective endings for Dative Case

Singular number endings:

masculine feminine neuter
-emu -ej -emu

Plural number endings:

masculine feminine neuter
-ym / -im -ym / -im -ym / -im

As you can see the only problem is with plural adjectives, because there are two options to choose from. The table below explains which option to choose

root ends with ending to use
soft consonant or g, k -im
rest of hard consonants -ym

In the table below you can see which consonants are hard, and which are soft:

Hard Soft
p pi
b bi
f fi
w wi
m mi
t ci / ć
d dzi / dź
s si / ś
z zi / ź
n ni / ń
ł l
r rz
k c
g dz
ch sz
st ści / ść
zd ździ / źdź
śl
źl
sn śni / śń
cz
ż
j

Examples of plural adjectives:

Nominative masculine singular Consonant Dative plural Comment
szeroki k szerokim -im, because the last consonant is k
długi g długim -im, because the last consonant is g
tani ń/ni tanim -im, because the last consonant is soft
kozi ź/zi kozim -im, because the last consonant is soft
zielony n zielonym -ym, because the last consonant is hard
wesoły ł wesołym -ym, because the last consonant is hard

The alternative way to remember which option to choose is to look on the Nominative masculine adjective. If it ends with -i, then in plural you have to use the ending -im, otherwise -ym.

Examples for all numbers and genders

zielony - green:

Nominative Dative
masculine singular zielony zielonemu
feminine singular zielona zielonej
neutral singular zielone zielonemu
plural zielone zielonym

szeroki - wide:

Nominative Dative
masculine singular szeroki szerokiemu
feminine singular szeroka szerokiej
neutral singular szerokie szerokiemu
plural szerokie szerokim

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